Martin County was authorized to become a county of the state on January 20 in 1820. The county was portioned off of land from Dubois and Daviess counties. It was named after a former major from Newport, Kentucky, John T. Martin. Even though the county seat belongs to the town of Shoals, the counties largest city is Loogootee. With a total area of 340 square miles, it also has a population count of 10,217 residents.